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500                             POLITICAL  SCIENCE.
All this shows the grandeur and richness of Christianity-
Evils of union of that ifc is to°  Sreat in its  conceptions to be
church and state.     grasped   by the human   mind, and  is capable
of taking many forms with one substratum.    But does it not
show also that state laws, founded  on distinctions derived
from orthodoxy or from a certain standard of church order, are
nugatory—nay, rather that they must intensify dissension into
bitterness, divide society, and perhaps threaten the very ex-
istence of the state ?    That (with all this) in certain circum-
stances a state church on a free footing for dissenters maybe
endured, or may be a blessing, is admitted.    But let us look,
at what state laws touching religion have done or left undone.
,    They have influenced national policy disastrously, so that
the leading causes in the war with the Albigenses, the Huss-
ite war, the thirty years' war, the  English rebellion, were
religious.    It does not seem probable that mere differences of
confessional  opinion, for instance, in the thirty years' war,
would alone have brought on that scourge of Germany; but
the connection of the churches with the state certainly had
much to do with the evil.
They have forced compliance with ceremony and ritual;
and punished, even with death, persons who wrote against
the state churches. In England, for a long time they shut
out men from parliament—men otherwise qualified for serving
the state—by the condition of taking the sacrament according
to the forms of the English church. This act, it is true, was
continually suspended in order to admit conscientious dissent-
ers into the Commons; but it was a farce and a shame to
keep such a law on the statute-book, if it ought not to have
been put in force. They have also shut out from the privi-
leges of taking degrees in the universities all who could not
profess a faith in the articles of the established church.
They have established a church to which scarcely a half of
the inhabitants who go to church belonged.
They have intensified religious rancor and hatred among
the people, by lowering the estimation of dissenters and mak-
ing them socially an inferior class.